This is because a service project is allowed to attach to only one host project. In cases where the aggregate resource requirements of all VPC networks can't be met within a project's quota, use an architecture with multiple host projects with a single Shared VPC network per host project, rather than a single host project with multiple Shared VPC networks.
Ensure that you enter them correctly. From a security perspective, you often want different teams to manage and secure those resources. You can use the supported cloud deployment solutions to host product components and provision virtual machines. For an example of this configuration, see the single project, single VPC network reference architecture. Turning on maintenance mode for a connection prevents any new power action from affecting any machine stored on the connection.
It's important to evaluate your scale requirements, because using a single host project requires multiple VPC networks in the host project, and quotas are enforced at the project level. For an example of this configuration, see the Multiple host projects, multiple service projects, multiple Shared VPC reference architecture.
This allows each VPC network to have separate IAM permissions for networking and security management, because IAM permissions are also implemented at the project level. Quotas are default constraints applied at the project level and can be raised by GCP requesting additional quota. They are meant to protect you from unexpected resource usage. However, many factors might lead you to request increases.
This makes it easier to map project-level quota increases to each VPC network, rather than a combination of VPC networks in the same project. Limits most commonly apply within a VPC network and are designed to protect system resources in aggregate. Limits generally can't be raised easily, although GCP support and sales teams can work with you to increase some limits. See VPC resource quotas and limits for current values.
Google Support can increase some scaling limits, but there might be times when you need to build multiple VPC networks to meet your scaling requirements. If your VPC network has a requirement to scale beyond the limits, discuss your case with GCP sales and support teams about the best approach for your requirements.
Some large enterprise deployments involve autonomous teams that each require full control over their respective VPC networks.
For more information about creating a common VPC network for shared services, see the shared services section. A VPC network is a project-level resource with fine-grained, project-level identity and access management IAM controls , including the following roles:. For companies that deal with compliance initiatives, sensitive data, or highly regulated data that is bound by compliance standards such as HIPAA or PCI-DSS, further security measures often make sense.
One method that can improve security and make it easier to prove compliance is to isolate each of these environments into its own VPC network. VPC networks are isolated tenant spaces within Google's Andromeda SDN, and there are several ways that they can communicate with each other. The subsequent sections provide best practices for choosing a VPC connection method. The advantages and disadvantages of each are summarized in the following table, and subsequent sections provide best practices for choosing a VPC connection method. We recommend using VPC Network Peering when you need to connect VPC networks and can't use a single Shared VPC, as long as the totals of the resources needed for all directly connected peers do not exceed the limits on VM instances, number of peering connectionss, and internal forwarding rules.
VPC Network Peering merges the control plane and flow propagation between each peer, allowing the same forwarding characteristics as if all the VMs were in the same VPC network. When VPC networks are peered, all subnets, alias IP ranges, and internal forwarding rules are accessible, and each VPC network maintains its own distributed firewall. VPC Network Peering is not transitive. When a VPC network is deployed, a route to Google's default internet gateway is provisioned with a priority of You can also deploy services behind one of Google's many public load-balancing offerings, which allows the services to be reached externally.
Externally addressed VMs communicate with each other privately over Google's backbone, regardless of region and Network Service Tier. External routing is a good option for scaling purposes, but it's important to understand how public routing affects costs. For details, see the Network pricing documentation. Classic VPN and static routing enables transitive routing across VPC networks and hub-and-spoke topologies as described later in this document. Cloud Interconnect extends your on-premises network to Google's network through a highly available, low-latency connection.
You can use Cloud Interconnect - Dedicated Interconnect to connect directly to Google or use Cloud Interconnect - Partner Interconnect to connect to Google through a supported service provider. Dedicated Interconnect provides high-speed L2 service between Google and a colocation provider or on-premises location. This allows you to use on-premises routing equipment to route between VPC networks and use existing on-premises security and inspection services to filter all traffic between VPC networks.
All traffic between the two VPC networks has extra latency because of an additional round trip through the on-premises system. Partner Interconnect provides similar capabilities, as well as the ability to peer directly with a provider at L3 and have the provider route between VPC networks.
Because many enterprise security appliances can be used on GCP using Multi-NIC VMs, using Cloud Interconnect to route traffic between VPC networks is not necessary except in very few cases where all traffic has to flow through an on-premises appliance because of corporate policies.
A VPC network provides a full mesh of global reachability. For this reason, shared services and continuous integration pipelines residing in the same VPC network don't require special consideration when it comes to connectivity—they are inherently reachable.
Shared VPC extends this concept, allowing shared services to reside in an isolated project while providing connectivity to other services or consumers. VPC Network Peering provides a simple approach for shared services connectivity. In this model, each VPC network creates a peering relationship with a common shared services VPC network to provide reachability. VPC Network Peering introduces scaling considerations, because scaling limits apply to the aggregate resource use of all peers.
Using the Service Networking API, you can let your customers in the same organization or another organization make use of a service you provide, but let them choose the IP address range that gets connected using VPC Network Peering. After you have identified the need for hybrid connectivity and have chosen a solution that meets your bandwidth, performance, and security requirements, consider how to integrate it into your VPC design. Using Shared VPC alleviates the need for each project to replicate the same solution. In general, we recommend that you use dynamic routing. You might need to use static routing under some circumstances—for example, if your on-premises devices do not support dynamic routing.
If you choose regional routing, the Cloud Router only advertises subnets that co-reside in the region where the Cloud Router is deployed. Global routing, on the other hand, advertises all subnets, regardless of region, but does penalize routes that are advertised and learned outside of the region. Static routing is only available on Classic VPN.
Static routing offers the ability to set a next-hop route pointing at a Cloud VPN tunnel. By default, a static route applies to all VMs regardless of region. Static routing also lets network administrators selectively set which VMs the route applies to by using instance tags, which can be targeted when you create a route. Static routes apply globally within the VPC network, with the same route priority as each other. Therefore, if you have multiple tunnels in multiple regions to the same prefix with the same priority, a VM will use 5-tuple hash-based ECMP across all tunnels.
To optimize this setup, you can create a preferred in-region route by referencing instance tags for each region and creating preferred routes accordingly. If you don't want outbound egress traffic to go through Google's default internet gateway, you can set a preferred default static route to send all traffic back on-premises through a tunnel.
If you need to scale a hub-and-spoke architecture with multiple VPC networks, configure a centralized hybrid connectivity in a dedicated VPC network and peer to other projects using custom advertised routes. This allows static or dynamically learned routes to be exported to peer VPC networks, to provide centralized configuration and scale to your VPC network design.
GCP provides robust security features across its infrastructure and services, from the physical security of data centers and custom security hardware to dedicated teams of researchers. However, securing your GCP resources is a shared responsibility. You must take appropriate measures to help ensure that your apps and data are protected.
Before evaluating either cloud-native or cloud-capable security controls, start with a set of clear security objectives that all stakeholders agree to as a fundamental part of the product. These objectives should emphasize achievability, documentation, and iteration, so that they can be referenced and improved throughout development.
The resource is assigned an internal IP address from one of the IP ranges associated with the subnet.
Resources in a VPC network can communicate among themselves through internal IP addresses if firewall rules permit. Limit access to the internet to only those resources that need it. This private access enables resources to interact with key Google and GCP services while remaining isolated from the public internet. Additionally,use organizational policies to further restrict which resources are allowed to use external IP addresses.